Biological


level

of

analysis




Learning outcomes

Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis (for example, patterns of behaviour can be inherited; animal research may inform our understanding of human behaviour; cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and endocrine systems).
Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies).
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis (for example, experiments, observations, correlational studies).
Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis.

Physiology and behaviour

Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain (for example, Wernicke, Broca, Gazzaniga and Sperry).
Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour (for example, the effect of noradrenaline on depression).
Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour.
Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes (for example, effects of jet lag on bodily rhythms, effects of deprivation on neuroplasticity, effects of environmental stressors on reproductive
mechanisms).
Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour (for example, agnosia, anosognosia, prosapagnosia, amnesia). Evaluate two relevant studies.
Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies (for example, CAT, PET, fMRI) in investigating the relationship between biological factors and behaviour.

Genetics and behaviour

With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behaviour?
Examine one evolutionary explanation of behaviour.
Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behavior.
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Cognitive

level
of
analysis
Learning outcomes
Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis (for example, mental representations guide behaviour, mental processes can be scientifically investigated).
Explain how principles that define the cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies).
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of analysis (for example, experiments, observations, interviews).
Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of analysis.


Cognitive processes

Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies.
Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process (for example, memory, perception, language, decisionmaking) with reference to research studies.
Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process (for example, Alzheimer’s disease, brain damage, sleep deprivation).
Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process (for example, education, carpentered-world hypothesis, effect of video games on attention).
With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent is one cognitive process reliable (for example,reconstructive memory, perception/visual illusions, decisionmaking/heuristics)?
Discuss the use of technology in investigating cognitive processes (for example, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans in memory research, fMRI scans in decisionmaking research).

Cognition and emotion

To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion (for example, two factor theory, arousal theory, Lazarus’ theory of appraisal)?
Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process (for example, state-dependent
memory, flashbulb memory, affective filters).
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Sociocultural

level
of
analysis

Learning outcomes

Outline principles that define the sociocultural • level of analysis (for example, the social and cultural
environment influences individual behaviour; we want connectedness with, and a sense of belonging to, others; we construct our conceptions of the individual and social self).
Explain how principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies).
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis (for example, participant/ naturalistic observation, interviews, case studies).
Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the sociocultural level of analysis.

Sociocultural cognition

Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour.
Discuss two errors in attributions (for example, fundamental attribution error, illusory correlation, selfserving bias).
Evaluate social identity theory, making reference to relevant studies.
Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behaviour.

Social norms

Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies.
Discuss the use of compliance techniques (for example, lowballing, footinthedoor, reciprocity).
Evaluate research on conformity to group norms.
Discuss factors influencing conformity (for example, culture, groupthink, risky shift, minority influence).


Cultural norms

Define the terms “culture” and “cultural norms”.
Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour (for example, individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, Confucian dynamism, masculinity/femininity).
Using one or more examples, explain “emic” and “etic” concepts.